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how do males get prostate cancer

how do males get prostate cancer插图

What is the prognosis for men with prostate cancer?

The prognosis for prostate cancer varies widely and depends on many factors, including the age and health of the patient, the stage of the tumor when it was diagnosed, the aggressiveness of the tumor, and cancer's responsiveness to treatment, among other factors. The 5-year survival rate for most men with local or regional prostate cancer is 100%.

What men should know about prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is the leading cancer in men worldwide. It is the second most common cancer in men. Many low-grade prostate cancers grow slowly and remain confined to the prostate gland without spreading. Low-grade prostate tumours may not cause serious harm and may need minimal or even no treatment.

How to cure prostate cancer natural way?

Naturopathic Methods For Treating CancerLimit the intake of food sprayed or treated with pesticidesAvoid smoking and alcohol intakeReduce red meat intake

How dangerous is prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer presents a particular threat to men. It primarily afflicts men over the age of 40. Overall it’s the second-leading cause of cancer death among American men, behind only lung cancer. The ACS projects about 268,490 new cases of prostate cancer and 34,500 deaths in 2022.

What is the role of inherited genes in prostate cancer?

Inherited gene changes are thought to play a role in about 10% of prostate cancers. Cancer caused by inherited genes is called hereditary cancer. Several inherited mutated genes have been linked to hereditary prostate cancer, including: BRCA1 and BRCA2: These tumor suppressor genes normally help repair mistakes in a cell’s DNA ...

What genes help repair DNA?

BRCA1 and BRCA2: These tumor suppressor genes normally help repair mistakes in a cell’s DNA (or cause the cell to die if the mistake can’t be fixed). Inherited mutations in these genes more commonly cause breast and ovarian cancer in women. But changes in these genes (especially BRCA2) also account for a small number of prostate cancers.

What is the function of RNASEL?

RNASEL (formerly HPC1): The normal function of this tumor suppressor gene is to help cells die when something goes wrong inside them. Inherited mutations in this gene might let abnormal cells live longer than they should, which can lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Why do prostate cancer cells turn into cancer cells?

But they have found some risk factors and are trying to learn just how these factors might cause prostate cells to become cancer cells. On a basic level, prostate cancer is caused by changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which control how our cells function.

How does cancer happen?

Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations (or other types of changes) that keep oncogenes turned on, or that turn off tumor suppressor genes. These types of gene changes can lead to cells growing out of control. DNA changes can either be inherited from a parent or can be acquired during a person’s lifetime.

Which genes are responsible for prostate cancer?

But changes in these genes (especially BRCA2) also account for a small number of prostate cancers. CHEK2, ATM, PALB2, and RAD51D: Mutations in these other DNA repair genes might also be responsible for some hereditary prostate cancers.

What are the genes that control cell growth?

Some genes control when our cells grow, divide into new cells, and die: Certain genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes. Genes that normally keep cell growth under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.

How does prostate cancer start?

Doctors know that prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate develop changes in their DNA. A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The changes tell the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when other cells would die.

What is the treatment for erectile dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can result from prostate cancer or its treatment, including surgery, radiation or hormone treatments. Medications, vacuum devices that assist in achieving erection and surgery are available to treat erectile dysfunction.

What are the complications of prostate cancer?

Complications. Complications of prostate cancer and its treatments include: Cancer that spreads (metastasizes). Prostate cancer can spread to nearby organs, such as your bladder, or travel through your bloodstream or lymphatic system to your bones or other organs.

How to prevent prostate cancer?

Choose healthy foods over supplements. No studies have shown that supplements play a role in reducing your risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals so that you can maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body. Exercise most days of the week.

What is the function of the prostate gland?

The prostate's primary function is to produce the fluid that nourishes and transports sperm (seminal fluid).

What is the name of the cancer that occurs in the prostate?

Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.

How to improve mood?

Exercise most days of the week. Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. Try to exercise most days of the week. If you're new to exercise , start slow and work your way up to more exercise time each day.

How common is prostate cancer?

Other than skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men. The American Cancer Society’s estimates for prostate cancer in the United States for 2021 are:

How many people will have prostate cancer in their lifetime?

About 1 man in 8 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.

How many men die from prostate cancer?

About 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer can be a serious disease, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from it. In fact, more than 3.1 million men in the United States who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point are still alive today.

What are the risk factors for prostate cancer?

The most common risk factor is age. The older a man is, the greater the chance of getting prostate cancer. Some men are at increased risk for prostate cancer. You are at increased risk for getting or dying from prostate cancer if you are African-American or have a family history of prostate cancer.

Which is more likely to get prostate cancer?

African-American Men. Are more likely to get prostate cancer than other men. Are more than twice as likely to die from prostate cancer than other men. Get prostate cancer at a younger age, tend to have more advanced disease when it is found, and tend to have a more severe type of prostate cancer than other men.

Is prostate cancer a genetic risk factor?

Family History (Genetic Risk Factors) For some men, genetic factors may put them at higher risk of prostate cancer. You may have an increased risk of getting a type of prostate cancer caused by genetic changes that are inherited if—.

How does the doctor know I have prostate cancer?

Most men with early prostate cancer don’t have changes that they notice. Signs of prostate cancer most often show up later, as the cancer grows.

How serious is my cancer?

If you have prostate cancer, the doctor will want to find out how far it has spread. This is called the stage of the cancer. You may have heard other people say that their cancer was “stage 1” or “stage 2.” Your doctor will want to find out the stage of your cancer to help decide what types of treatment might be best for you.

What about other treatments I hear about?

These may not always be standard medical treatments. These treatments may be vitamins, herbs, special diets, and other things. You may wonder about these treatments.

What will happen after treatment?

You’ll be glad when treatment is over. But it’s hard not to worry about cancer coming back. When cancer comes back it is called a recurrence. Even when cancer never comes back, people still worry about it. For years after treatment ends, you will see your cancer doctor. At first, your visits may be every few months. Then, the longer you’re cancer-free, the less often the visits are needed.

What blood test is needed for prostate cancer?

If signs are pointing to prostate cancer, tests will be done. Most men will not need all of them, but here are some of the tests you may need: PSA blood test: PSA is a protein that’s made by the prostate gland and can be found in the blood. Prostate cancer can make PSA levels go up.

How does chemotherapy work?

Chemo is the use of drugs to fight cancer. The drugs may be given into a vein or taken as pills. These drugs go into the blood and spread through the body. Chemo is given in cycles or rounds. Each round of treatment is followed by a break. Chemo may be used if the cancer has spread outside the prostate gland.

What is the best way to find out if prostate cancer has spread?

MRI scans can be used to look at the prostate and can show if the cancer has spread outside the prostate to nearby organs. Prostate biopsy: For a prostate biopsy, the doctor uses a long, hollow needle to take out small pieces of the prostate where the cancer might be.

Health & Wellnessprostate Cancer Warning Signs: What Doctors Say You Need To Know

Dr. Behfar Ehdaie, a urologic surgeon specializing in prostate cancer at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, said that these varying guidelines are due to the different risk factors that each person faces.

What Are The Stages Of Prostate Cancer

Your healthcare provider uses the Gleason score and Grade Groups to stage prostate cancer based on its projected aggressiveness. To get this information, the pathologist:

How Do Men Feel About The Rectal Exam

I think most men are willing to do it, but some men are exceptionally opposed to it. They might be happy to hear that there are studies ongoing in the United Kingdom looking at using magnetic resonance imaging as a screening tool to be able to avoid doing a digital rectal exam in the future.

Psa Test For Prostate Cancer

The prostate gland makes a protein called prostate specific antigen . This protein helps to nourish sperm. Normally, only tiny amounts of it enter the bloodstream.

Deaths From Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind only lung cancer. About 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer.

What Are The Prostate Cancer Symptoms I Need To Look Out For

In its early stages, prostate cancer may not show any symptoms. Symptoms of early prostate cancer can include:

Prostate Cancer In Young Men

Though older men face the highest risk for prostate cancer, young men are by no means immune. If you’re younger than 60, here’s what you should know about your risk.

Is Early Onset Prostate Cancer Common?

The average age for a first prostate cancer diagnosis is 68. In the U.S., about 10% of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer are under 55. You may also develop prostate cancer when you’re much younger, in your teens or as a young adult, though this is extremely rare.

What is radiation therapy?

Radiation therapy uses X-rays to destroy cancer cells. Radiation can be used to target the cancer in your prostate, or other areas if it’s spread to different parts of your prostate area.

What is the treatment for testosterone?

Your hormone therapy may involve medications that stop your body from making testosterone, medications that block testosterone from reaching cancer cells, or other medications that help control testosterone.

What is the procedure to remove prostate cancer?

If the cancer is localized, which means it hasn’t spread beyond your prostate, you may have surgery called radical prostatectomy to remove it before it spreads.

What is the average age for prostate cancer?

The average age for a first prostate cancer diagnosis is 68. In the U.S., about 10% of men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer are under 55. You may also develop prostate cancer when you’re much younger, in your teens or as a young adult, though this is extremely rare.

Why do younger men get prostate cancer?

It’s not yet clear why younger men get prostate cancer.

What is the purpose of immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy teaches your immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

What are male sex hormones?

Hormones are substances that are made by glands in the body. Hormones circulate in the bloodstream and control the actions of certain cells or organs.

What types of hormone therapy are used for prostate cancer?

Hormone therapy for prostate cancer can block the production or use of androgens ( 4 ). Currently available treatments can do so in several ways:

How is hormone therapy used to treat hormone-sensitive prostate cancer?

Hormone therapy may be used in several ways to treat hormone-sensitive prostate cancer , including:

How is castration-resistant prostate cancer treated?

Complete androgen blockade —that is, androgen receptor blockers ( flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide, apalutamide, darolutamide, or enzalutamide ).

What is intermittent ADT?

With intermittent androgen deprivation, hormone therapy is given in cycles with breaks between drug administrations, rather than continuously. An additional potential benefit of this approach is that the temporary break from the side effects of hormone therapy may improve a man’s quality of life.

What can be done to reduce the side effects of hormone therapy for prostate cancer?

Men who lose bone mass during long-term hormone therapy may be prescribed drugs to slow or reverse this loss. The drugs zoledronic acid (Zometa) and alendronate (Fosamax) (both of which belong to a class of drugs called bisphosphonates) can be used to increase bone mineral density in men who are undergoing hormone therapy ( 29, 30 ), as can a newer drug, denosumab (Prolia), which increases bone mass through a different mechanism ( 31 ). However, drugs to treat bone loss are associated with a rare but serious side effect called osteonecrosis of the jaw ( 20 ).

What is the most common treatment for prostate cancer?

Treatments that reduce androgen production by the testicles are the most commonly used hormone therapies for prostate cancer and the first type of hormone therapy that most men with prostate cancer receive. This form of hormone therapy (also called androgen deprivation therapy, or ADT) includes:

What is the best way to monitor prostate cancer?

Closely monitoring the prostate cancer by performing prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal exam (DRE) tests and prostate biopsies regularly , and treating the cancer only if it grows or causes symptoms. Surgery.

What is the procedure to remove prostate cancer?

Surgery. A prostatectomy is an operation where doctors remove the prostate. Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate as well as the surrounding tissue. Radiation therapy. Using high-energy rays (similar to X-rays) to kill the cancer. There are two types of radiation therapy—. External radiation therapy.

How to choose the right cancer treatment?

Choosing the treatment that is right for you may be hard. Talk to your cancer doctor about the treatment options available for your type and stage of cancer. Your doctor can explain the risks and benefits of each treatment and their side effects . Side effects are how your body reacts to drugs or other treatments.

How does ultrasound help with cancer?

High-intensity focused ultrasound. This therapy directs high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) at the cancer to kill cancer cells.

What is complementary medicine?

Complementary and alternative medicine are medicines and health practices that are not standard cancer treatments. Complementary medicine is used in addition to standard treatments, and alternative medicine is used instead of standard treatments. Meditation, yoga, and supplements like vitamins and herbs are some examples.

What is high intensity ultrasound?

High-intensity focused ultrasound. This therapy directs high-energy sound waves (ultra sound) at the cancer to kill cancer cells.

What is the treatment for cancer?

Chemotherapy. Using special drugs to shrink or kill the cancer. The drugs can be pills you take or medicines given through your veins, or, sometimes, both.

how do males get prostate cancer
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