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is type 2 diabetes more common in males or females

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Men

Is diabetes more common in men or women?

Diabetes is more common in men than women. A number of studies have shown that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are more common in men than in women.

What is the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the US?

Results: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 14.6% in men and 9.1% in women (P .001). Mean BMI was slightly higher in men than in women (27.3 vs 26.6 kg/m 2; P = .01), with a greater difference in mean visceral fat mass (1987 vs 1077 g; P .001).

Is there a sex difference in type 2 diabetes mellitus?

Abstract The steep rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and associated complications go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. T2DM is more frequently diagnosed at lower age and body mass index in men; however, the most prominent risk factor, which is obesity, is more common in women.

How does diabetes affect men’s health?

Diabetes puts both men and women at greater risk for heart disease, stroke, vision loss, kidney failure, even amputation of a toe, foot, or leg. But some diabetes problems hit guys directly below the belt:

Why are men more likely to have type 2 diabetes than women?

As a guy, you’re more likely to get type 2 diabetes at a lower weight than women. One reason is that men store more fat in their bellies —a known risk factor. And more men than women have diabetes that’s undiagnosed; maybe it’s that “don’t want to hear bad news” thing.

How to stay healthy in the game?

Healthy habits help you stay in the game – being active on most days, eating healthy food, checking your blood sugar, managing your blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and going to doctor appointments. Be sure to take advantage of diabetes self-management education and support services.

What is the device that holds blood in the penis?

Vacuum device : This is a plastic tube that fits over the penis, creating a low-pressure vacuum that causes an erection. An elastic ring is slipped onto the base of the penis to hold blood in and maintain the erection. With training, about 75% of men can get an erection firm enough for sex.

What does it mean when you have trouble getting an erection?

Problems with ejaculation, which can mean a structural problem with the penis. It’s not uncommon to have trouble getting an erection sometimes, but if it gets worse, happens often, or prevents you from living the life you want, it’s time to get it checked out.

What are the problems with leaking urine?

Overactive bladder (needing to urinate often, urinating often at night, leaking urine) Male incontinence (leaking urine) Urinary tract infections (UTIs) Retrograde ejaculation (semen is released into the bladder) These problems could mean you need to change how you’re managing your diabetes.

Can testosterone cause ED?

Be sure to check with your doctor about any possible medicine interactions. Testosterone: Sometimes having low testosterone (low T) can cause ED. Men with diabetes are twice as likely to have low T than men who don’t have diabetes. Taking testosterone may help you have normal erections or help ED medicine work better.

Can you take nitrates for your heart?

Sometimes these medicines don’t work well for guys with diabetes and should NOT be taken if you’re also taking nitrates for your heart.

Why is testosterone important?

It stimulates the growth of muscles and hair, vocal changes and genital development. This hormone is also important throughout the life of a man, aiding the production of sperm and maintenance of libido. Females also produce testosterone at extremely low volumes, which helps to maintain the balanceof hormones, particularly after menopause. ...

How is glucose metabolized?

Glucose is usually metabolised and regulated at low levels in the blood through the function of a pancreatic hormone called insulin. This hormone is released after a meal, stimulating the cellular uptake of sugar and allowing it to be used and/or stored.

What happens if you have low testosterone?

This is particularly worrying as 1/6 th of all males have low testosterone, which leads to poor muscle formation, increased fat storage, and leads to a dramatic increase in diabetes risk.

Why do men have Type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is due to increased insulin resistance, associated with weight gain, inactive lifestyles and poor diet. Type 2 diabetes is more frequently found in men, especially at ages of 35-54, where men are twice as likely to develop diabetes, with onset at a much lower average BMI.

What are the complications of diabetes?

These include amputation, neuropathy, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. 45% of males with diabetes also develop erectile dysfunction due to nerve, muscle and blood vessel damage. However, women have a much greater chance of heart disease, ...

What happens if you don't control your blood sugar?

Over time, the lack of blood sugar control can result in life-threatening complications, if not correctly managed. There are two types of diabetes, type 1 which is more common in children and type 2 which is more common in adults.

Does diabetes cause visceral fat deposition?

Type 2 diabetes has a direct correlation with increased risk of visceral fat deposition. Research has also shown that low testosterone levels in men can increase e visceral fat deposition, leading to increased type 2 diabetes. This is particularly worrying as 1/6 th of all males have low testosterone, which leads to poor muscle formation, ...

What are the factors that contribute to obesity?

Modifiable social factors, like low educational level, occupation, and income, largely contribute to unhealthy lifestyle behavior and social disparities and thus are related to higher risk of obesity and T2DM particularly in women (Table 1) (92, 93). In this context, it has to be emphasized that psychosocial risk factors and stress consist of economic, environmental, and behavioral components. These may differently influence diabetes risk overall and between men and women, but they are usually interrelated to each other. Further showing intricacy of this issue and limitations of many studies.

Is T2DM more likely to develop during pregnancy?

Metaanalysis: 7-fold greater risk of development of T2DM compared with women who maintained NGT during pregnancy

What is the difference between IFG and IGT?

The prevalence of prediabetic categories differ between sexes (Figure 2B) giving rise to clinical implications: men more often develop impaired fasting glucose (IFG), whereas women more often show IGT (Figure 2B). IFG is characterized by increased hepatic glucose output and impaired early insulin secretion, whereas IGT is primarily due to peripheral insulin resistance (82). IGT may better predict progression to diabetes and mortality risk relates more strongly to an increased cardiovascular risk. This fact may explain why World Health Organization criteria, including IGT status may be superior to other definitions of MetS in prediction of diabetes and CVD in women (83, 84). It further highlights the importance of performing oral glucose tolerance tests to screen for IGT, especially in women.

What does ++ mean in diabetes?

0, no effect; ?, decreases diabetes risk; +, increases diabetes risk; ++, increases diabetes risk to a greater extent; n.a., nonappropriate.

Does adiponectin affect cardiometabolic risk?

Women show an up-regulation of expression of adiponectin and its receptor in abdominal adipose tissue, possibly contributing to their lower cardiometabolic risk. In general, metaanalyses have shown that women have higher leptin and adiponectin levels than men of comparable age and BMI, which may be related to their sexual hormones (41, 45). In several longitudinal studies, increased plasma leptin, which mirrors body fat mass and is strongly associated to SAT, relates to increased diabetes risk in males (37). On the other hand, an inverse correlation between plasma adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity is seen in obese and diabetic subjects, which tends to be somewhat more pronounced in women (45,–47). In addition, androgens may decrease adiponectin secretion. However, it is still unclear whether hypoadiponectinemia is a cause or a consequence of insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia (37).

Does BMI affect T2DM?

Greater diabetes risk in women in other studies: in women, BMI mainly influenced the association with T2DM

Is SES associated with obesity?

SES, assessed by educational level, position, and income, is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity and T2DM in developed countries. Steeper gradients among women can be observed in a national population health survey in Canada (94). This study found persisting associations between low education and income and self-reported diabetes after controlling for obesity and physical activity in women. Consistently, a population-based European survey, the Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) study (95) found stronger associations between SES indicators, abdominal obesity, and physical activity in women. Additionally, a strong inverse association between occupation and newly detected diabetes was presented only in women (95). On the other hand, low SES, evaluated by occupation, relates to risk of IGT in men, independent of other confounders. Confirmed by a metaanalysis of case-control and cohort studies low SES is an important risk factor for T2DM in both sexes worldwide (96).

How to keep gestational diabetes in target range?

What You Can Do: If you’re diagnosed with gestational diabetes, your doctor will work with you to create a treatment plan to help keep your blood sugar in your target range by eating healthy food in the right amounts and being active most days of the week. You may need diabetes medicine or insulin shots to keep you and your baby healthy.

How does diabetes affect pregnancy?

If you know you want to have a baby, planning ahead is really important. Diabetes can make it harder to get pregnant, and high blood sugar can increase your risk for: 1 Preeclampsia (high blood pressure) 2 Delivery by cesarean section (C-section) 3 Miscarriage or stillbirth

Why is my vagina so dry?

Causes can include nerve damage, reduced blood flow, medications, and hormonal changes, including those during pregnancy or menopause. What You Can Do: Be sure to talk to your doctor if you’re having any sexual issues.

What happens after menopause?

After menopause. external icon. , your body makes less estrogen, which can cause unpredictable ups and downs in blood sugar. You may gain weight, which increases your need for insulin or other diabetes medicines. Hot flashes. external icon. and night sweats may disrupt your sleep, making managing blood sugar harder.

How to get blood sugar levels in target range?

What You Can Do: Work with your health care team to get your blood sugar levels in your target range and establish good habits such as eating healthy and being active. Your blood sugar levels can change quickly, so check them often and adjust your food, activity, and medicine as needed with guidance from your doctor.

How is diabetes different for women than it is for men?

How is diabetes different for women than it is for men? Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease (the most common diabetes complication) by about four times in women but only about two times in men, and women have worse outcomes after a heart attack. Women are also at higher risk of other diabetes-related complications such as blindness, kidney disease, and depression.

Why do women get UTI?

More than 50% of women will get a urinary tract infection (UTI) in their lifetime, and your risk may be higher if you have diabetes. Causes include high blood sugar levels and poor circulation (which reduces your body’s ability to fight infections).

What are the effects of menopause?

Menopause is the phase of life after your periods have stopped. The combination of diabetes and menopause can cause a number of effects on the body, including: 1 Changes in blood glucose. The hormones estrogen and progesterone affect how your cells respond to insulin. After menopause, hormone level changes can cause fluctuations in blood glucose levels. 2 Weight gain. Some women gain weight during and after menopause, which may increase the need for diabetes medications or insulin. 3 Sleep problems. After menopause, hot flashes and night sweats may keep women up at night. Unfortunately, prolonged sleep deprivation can make it tougher to manage blood glucose levels.

Why is diabetes the most common cause of erectile dysfunction?

Those who have high blood glucose levels and heart disease are at the highest risk; this is because diabetes causes damage to the walls of the blood vessels , which affects circulation and blood flow to the penis. Learn more about erectile dysfunction.

What happens to blood glucose after menopause?

After menopause, hormone level changes can cause fluctuations in blood glucose levels. Weight gain. Some women gain weight during and after menopause, which may increase the need for diabetes medications or insulin. Sleep problems. After menopause, hot flashes and night sweats may keep women up at night.

Why is blood glucose worse in women than men?

One reason that has been suggested for this is because women often have to cope with both their diabetes and the care of their families.

What is the phase of life after your period has ended?

Menopause is the phase of life after your periods have stopped. The combination of diabetes and menopause can cause a number of effects on the body, including:

What happens to your body after your period?

Menopause is the phase of life after your periods have stopped. The combination of diabetes and menopause can cause a number of effects on the body, including: Changes in blood glucose. The hormones estrogen and progesterone affect how your cells respond to insulin.

What are the issues to be considered during the time that a woman is expecting a baby?

Whether a woman has type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes (which occurs only during pregnancy), there are some issues to be considered during the time that they are expecting a baby, Checking blood glucose levels regularly. Eating healthy foods. Getting regular exercise.

Why are men more susceptible to diabetes than women?

Men seem more susceptible than women to the consequences of indolence and obesity, possibly due to differences in insulin sensitivity and regional fat deposition. Women are, however, more likely to transmit Type II diabetes to their offspring.

Can a father with diabetes transmit diabetes to his offspring?

Further, father s with Type I diabetes are more likely than affected mother s to transmit the condition to their offspring. Women of childbearing age are therefore less likely to develop Type I diabetes, and--should this occur--are less likely to transmit it to their offspring.

Is Type 2 diabetes male or female?

Type II diabetes showed a pronounced female excess in the first half of the last century but is now equally prevalent among men and women in most populations, with some evidence of male preponderance in early middle age.

is type 2 diabetes more common in males or females
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