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should research on male pregnancy be encouraged

should research on male pregnancy be encouraged插图

Over the last several years, research on male involvement in reproductive and maternal health care has shown incredible impacts on the health outcomes of women and newborns. For example,educating male partners about HIV in general and how it is transmitted is essential to successful, long-term approaches to eliminating HIV/AIDS.

Do pregnant women really want male partner involvement during pregnancy?

This study showed that pregnant women desired male partner involvement during pregnancy, labour and delivery. However, the partners have not been able to effectively meet these needs with family, social, individual and health service factors playing a role in the dynamics towards the realization.

Are men involved in reproductive health issues during pregnancy and childbirth?

The objective was to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences of male involvement in their partners’ healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth. The findings might inform interventions for increasing men’s involvement in reproductive health issues.

Is it possible for a man to get pregnant?

But male pregnancy would be complicated and, scientists say, potentially fatal. A doctor would first administer a battery of hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, to prepare the male body to support a developing fetus. Side effects of the hormones could include the development of breasts, sterility, even cancer.

Why is male involvement important in childbirth?

Childbirth is the time when men are most receptive to getting involved with their families [ 34 ], which makes male involvement critical for healthy pregnancy outcomes, infant survival and ideal child development [ 35 – 40 ].

Why is it dangerous to deliver a baby?

The delivery would probably be the most dangerous part of this hypothetical process, because there would be a high risk of hemorrhaging. During pregnancy, the placenta extends villi, hairlike projections containing blood vessels, into the surrounding tissues to establish a blood supply for the baby. Unlike the uterus, the abdomen is not designed to separate from the placenta during delivery. The placenta would become so bonded to the man’s body that it might be impossible to surgically remove it without also removing parts of abdominal organs, such as the bowels. The likely end product: a gaping wound in the abdomen and heavy, uncontrolled bleeding, says Gillian Lockwood, medical director of Midland Fertility Services, a leading British fertility clinic.

How long is a male pregnancy away from Lee Mingwei?

McGee estimates that male pregnancy is 20 years away, but others believe Lee Mingwei’s prank is as close as we’ll ever get.

What could be the inspiration for new materials?

Butterfly wing scales could be the inspiration for new materials.

What are the side effects of progesterone?

Side effects of the hormones could include the development of breasts, sterility, even cancer.

What are the signs of pregnancy?

All signs point to pregnancy: increased appetite, a bulging belly and an ultrasound that shows a growing fetus. But the patient, Lee Mingwei, is a man.

Where do you implant an embryo?

A surgeon would then implant an embryo, created by in-vitro fertilization, in the wall of the man’s peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. If all went well, the fetus would grow inside the abdomen until delivery by cesarean section.

Is pregnancy dangerous for a baby?

The pregnancy would pose serious health risks to the baby as well, according to Lockwood. Without a womb to protect it, the fetus would be in an unusual position and under unusual pressures, which could cause malformation of the limbs or organs.

What is the Wpath?

16. WPATH. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health: Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender-Nonconforming People. Int J Transgenderism2011; 13: 165–232. [Google Scholar]

What is the Creative Commons 3.0 license?

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page(https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

Does testosterone affect birth weight?

While the literature suggests that high (endogenous) androgen levels in pregnant women are associated with reduced birth weight35,36in this study “pregnancy, delivery, and birth outcomes” did not differ according to prior testosterone use, though testosterone levels and birth weight were not measured during pregnancy. Complications that were self-reported included hypertension (12%), preterm labor (10%), placental abruption (10%), and anemia (7%). Notably, anemia was not reported by any who had prior testosterone use. Study findings were limited by a small sample, retrospective self-reported outcomes, and insufficient power to observe differences between prior testosterone users and nonusers. The role of testosterone in influencing the genesis of obstetrical complications, remains unclear. Thus, at this time the management of any obstetrical pathophysiological entity that presents itself should be managed according to current obstetrical best practices and not determined in relation to gender identity or use of prior testosterone. Nonetheless these findings herald important considerations for future research and clinical practice.

Can transgender men carry a child?

The extent to which they can genetically contribute to a child or carry a pregnancy will depend on the specific surgical treatments. However, it is recommended that transgender men who may want to have genetically related children consider either embryo or oocyte cryopreservation (preferably prior to any testosterone treatment), and then, if they are unable to or do not desire to carry a pregnancy—work with their significant other or a surrogate to carry the pregnancy. The remainder of this review will cover the care for transgender men considering or in the midst of a pregnancy.

Is transgender pregnancy complex?

Principles of obstetrical practice regarding a transgender pregnancy are not complex once one has been appropriately trained in caring for people during pregnancy. While stories of pregnancies in transgender men are notable for challenges they pose to gendered notions of pregnancy, the clinical practice regarding care falls in the realm of routine obstetrical care. Review of the literature shows little research with two recent studies from 201433,34of modest population samples discussed below and another from 1998. Not surprisingly all three studies highlight both psychological issues experienced by transgender men contemplating pregnancy or bearing a child as well as the unique medical implications for both parent and fetus. The former may be more complex and require more specialized training.

Does medicine include gender diversity?

Indeed, medicine as a whole has not incorporated gender diversity into routine care.16For example, when should transgender men have routine chest (breast) cancer screening after chest reconstruction surgery? Or conversely how should one apply breast cancer screening protocols for transgender women; should we consider chronological age or length of exposure to exogenous estrogen? Other examples include, how and when to do prostate examinations for transgender women, and both timing and methodology of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV evaluations for all transgender people? One question that is beginning to progress from media attention to clinical and academic focus is, how best to care for transgender men who desire to be or are pregnant?

What are the characteristics of an ideal father?

The identified themes were: Men have different descriptions of their relationships; responsibility was an obligation; ideal fathers provide support to mothers during childbirth; the health system limits male involvement in childbirth; men have no clear roles during childbirth, and exclusion and alienation in the hospital environment. The men described qualities of the ideal father as one who was available, easily reached, accessible and considerate . Most men were willing to learn about their expected roles during childbirth and were eager to support their partners/wives/spouses during this time. However, they identified personal, relationship, family and community factors as barriers to their involvement. They found the health system unwelcoming, intimidating and unsupportive. Suggestions to improve men’s involvement include creating more awareness for fathers, male-targeted antenatal education and support, and changing provider attitudes.

How does male involvement affect pregnancy?

Male involvement in pregnancy and childbirth influences pregnancy outcomes [ 1 – 6 ]. It reduces negative maternal health behaviors [ 2 – 7 ], risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, fetal growth restriction and infant mortality [ 2 – 7 ]. There is epidemiological and physiological evidence [ 7, 8] that male involvement reduces maternal stress (by emotional, logistical and financial support) [ 1, 4 ], increases uptake of prenatal care [ 9 ], leads to cessation of risk behaviors (such as smoking) [ 9, 10 ] , and ensures men’s involvement in their future parental roles from an early stage [ 11 – 14 ].

Why is it important to increase male involvement in pregnancy?

The objective was to gain a deeper understanding of their experiences of male involvement in their partners’ healthcare during pregnancy and childbirth. The findings might inform interventions for increasing men’s involvement in reproductive health issues.

What is F?gerski?ld's definition of change in life?

Fägerskiöld A: A change in life as experienced by first-time fathers. Scand J Caring Sci. 2008, 22 (1): 64-71. 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2007.00585.x.

What are Lamb's three components?

Lamb’s theory [ 33] posits that the three components (engagement, accessibility and responsibility ) explain the degree of fathers’ involvement with the child and its mother. The quality (emotional connection) of the fathers’ relationship with the pregnant woman on the fathers’ expectations, experiences and practices.

What is ideal father?

Ideal fathers are involved and provide support during childbirth. Requested to give characteristics of an ideal father in the context of pregnancy and childbirth, participants described in detail the activities, attitudes and behaviors that demonstrate ideal male involvement.

How is data analysed?

Data was analysed using deductive content analysis [ 24 ]. The transcripts were read to identify patterns of words, phrases or statements across dataset that were important description of the essence of the phenomenon. Such constellation of words or statements relate to the same central meaning. These constituted the meaning units and contained aspects related to each other through both their content and context. Codes were assigned to these meaning units. Similar or related codes were aggregated later into categories and themes through a method of abstraction [ 25 ]. The agreement on which codes and categories were generated was by consensus. The codes were aggregated according to the identified meaningful patterns into categories that were exhaustive and mutually exclusive. A theme was identified as a consistent pattern found in the information that described or interpreted aspects of the phenomenon [ 24, 25 ]. Handwritten notes recorded the body language, the approach to responses (such as eagerness or hesitancy) and the participants’ mood during the conversations, so that the responses could be interpreted in the context in which they were made. A deductive approach is useful if the aim is to test an earlier theory in a different situation. Easy Text (EZ) software was used for data retrieval during analysis.

should research on male pregnancy be encouraged
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