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what is male breast cancer

what is male breast cancer插图

What do you need to know about male breast cancer?

Breast cancer in men usually starts in a duct. You may feel uncomfortable about talking to your healthcare provider if you notice changes or problems in your breasts. It is important to have changes and problems checked. Breast cancer is less common in men than in women, but men can get breast cancer. Breast cancer found early is easier to treat.

What percentage of men have breast cancer?

Men have less breast tissue than women and fewer than 1 percent of men develop breast cancer, so national cancer screening guidelines do not recommend regular screening mammograms for men. However, if a doctor suspects breast cancer, a diagnostic mammogram may be needed to look for malignant tumors.

Is there such a thing as male breast cancer?

The main symptom of breast cancer in men is a lump in the breast. The nipple or skin may also be affected. See a GP if you have a breast lump or any other symptoms that worry you. It's very unlikely you have cancer, but it's best to get your symptoms checked. Most lumps and swellings are not a sign of cancer.

Is it possible that I have male breast cancer?

Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a disease that affects women, breast cancer does occur in men. Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age. Men diagnosed with male breast cancer at an early stage have a good chance for a cure.

What are the lymph nodes?

The lymph system is a network of lymph (or lymphatic) vessels found throughout the body. The lymph vessels carry lymph fluid and connect lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped collections of immune system cells. Lymph vessels are like small veins, except that they carry a clear fluid called lymph (instead of blood) away from the breast. Lymph contains tissue fluid and waste products, as well as immune system cells. Breast cancer cells can enter lymph vessels and start to grow in lymph nodes. Most of the lymph vessels of the breast drain into: 1 Lymph nodes under the arm (axillary nodes) 2 Lymph nodes around the collar bone (supraclavicular [above the collar bone] and infraclavicular [below the collar bone] lymph nodes) 3 Lymph nodes inside the chest near the breast bone (internal mammary lymph nodes)

What is the most common breast disorder in men?

Gynecomastia. Gynecomastia is the most common male breast disorder. It is not a tumor but rather an increase in the amount of a man's breast tissue. Usually, men have too little breast tissue to be felt or noticed.

How does breast cancer spread?

How breast cancer spreads. Breast cancer can spread when the cancer cells get into the blood or lymph system and are carried to other parts of the body. The lymph system is a network of lymph (or lymphatic) vessels found throughout the body. The lymph vessels carry lymph fluid and connect lymph nodes.

What happens to breast tissue after puberty?

Even after puberty, boys and men normally have low levels of female hormones, and breast tissue doesn’t grow much. Men's breast tissue has ducts, but only a few if any lobules.

What is the risk of Klinefelter syndrome?

Klinefelter syndrome, a rare genetic condition, can lead to gynecomastia as well as increase a man's risk of developing breast cancer. This condition is discussed further in Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men.

Why is gynecomastia common in teenage boys?

Gynecomastia is common among teenage boys because the balance of hormones in the body changes during adolescence. It is also common in older men due to changes in their hormone balance.

How many male breast cancers are IDCs?

At least 8 out of 10 male breast cancers are IDCs (alone or mixed with other types of invasive or in situ breast cancer). Because the male breast is much smaller than the female breast, all male breast cancers start relatively close to the nipple, so they are more likely to spread to the nipple.

What Can I Do to Reduce My Risk?

Your doctor may refer you for genetic counseling. In men, mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can increase the risk of breast cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer.

What is ductal carcinoma in situ?

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a breast disease that may lead to invasive breast cancer. The cancer cells are only in the lining of the ducts, and have not spread to other tissues in the breast.

What are the most common types of breast cancer?

The most common kinds of breast cancer in men are the same kinds in women—. Invasive ductal carcinoma. The cancer cells grow outside the ducts into other parts of the breast tissue. Invasive cancer cells can also spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body. Invasive lobular carcinoma.

What are the conditions that affect the testicles?

Conditions that affect the testicles. Injury to, swelling in, or surgery to remove the testicles can increase breast cancer risk. Liver disease. Cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver can lower androgen levels and raise estrogen levels in men, increasing the risk of breast cancer. Overweight and obesity.

How old do you have to be to get breast cancer?

Getting older. The risk for breast cancer increases with age. Most breast cancers are found after age 50.

Where do lobular carcinoma cells spread?

Invasive lobular carcinoma. Cancer cells begin in the lobules and then spread from the lobules to the breast tissues that are close by. These invasive cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body.

How can men lower their risk of a syphilis?

All men can lower their risk by keeping a healthy weight and exercising regularly.

Why is lobular carcinoma rare?

Cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobular carcinoma). This type is rare in men because they have few lobules in their breast tissue.

What does it mean when your breast is red?

A painless lump or thickening in your breast tissue. Changes to the skin covering your breast, such as dimpling, puckering, redness or scaling. Changes to your nipple, such as redness or scaling, or a nipple that begins to turn inward. Discharge from your nipple.

How does breast cancer spread?

Doctors know that male breast cancer occurs when some breast cells divide more rapidly than healthy cells do. The accumulating cells form a tumor that may spread (metastasize) to nearby tissue, to the lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.

What is the genetic condition in which a boy has more than one copy of the X chromosome?

Family history of breast cancer. If you have a close family member with breast cancer, you have a greater chance of developing the disease. Klinefelter's syndrome. This genetic syndrome occurs when boys are born with more than one copy of the X chromosome.

What is the tissue that is born with breasts?

Everyone is born with a small amount of breast tissue. Breast tissue consists of milk-producing glands (lobules), ducts that carry milk to the nipples, and fat. During puberty, women begin developing more breast tissue, and men do not. But because men are born with a small amount of breast tissue, they can develop breast cancer.

What causes abnormal development of testicles?

Klinefelter's syndrome causes abnormal development of the testicles. As a result, men with this syndrome produce lower levels of certain male hormones (androgens) and more female hormones (estrogens). Liver disease.

What to do if you have a family history of cancer?

Your doctor may recommend that you meet with a genetic counselor in order to consider genetic testing to see if you carry genes that increase your risk of cancer.

What is the most common type of breast cancer?

Invasive ductal carcinoma: Cancer begins in the breast ducts and spreads to other parts of the breast. Cancer cells may also spread ( metastasize) to other areas of the body. Invasive (or infiltrating) ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer in people regardless of gender.

How do you classify breast cancer?

After diagnosing breast cancer, providers classify the disease using a process called staging. Providers measure the tumor and look at its location. They determine whether the tumor has spread to lymph nodes, surrounding breast tissue or other parts of your body. Lymph nodes are small organs that move fluid through the body and help protect you from illness.

What causes estrogen levels to rise?

Estrogen levels: Certain drugs that contain estrogen (such as medications to treat prostate cancer) cause estrogen levels to rise. Cirrhosis (liver disease) can also increase estrogen levels. A genetic disorder called Klinefelter syndrome increases the risk of several health issues, including breast cancer.

How to find cancer cells in breast tissue?

To look for cancer cells in breast tissue, your provider may do a biopsy. Using a thin needle, your provider removes a sample of the breast tissue and sends it to a lab. The lab tests the tissue for cancer cells.

What are the risks of breast cancer in men?

What are other risks for male breast cancer? The risk of breast cancer may increase if a man has a history of one or more of the following: A first degree relative with breast cancer. A genetic mutation such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, PTEN and CHEK2.

How big is a tumor in the armpit?

The tumor is smaller than 20 millimeters (mm) and has spread to a few axillary lymph nodes. Axillary nodes are lymph nodes in the armpit.

What is the best way to test for breast cancer?

Your provider may take a sample of your blood ( complete blood count or CBC and complete metabolic panel or CMP) and send it to a lab.

How many chances do males with breast cancer have of developing BRCA1?

A male child of a man with breast cancer who inherits the defective BRCA2 gene has only approximately 6% chance of eventually developing breast cancer and just over 1% with BRCA1.

What is the chance of a child with breast cancer if he has a BRCA1 gene?

If a man tests positive for a defective gene (most commonly either BRCA1 or BRCA2) that can lead to a future diagnosis of breast cancer and his children have a 50% chance of carrying the gene. In addition: A male child of a man with breast cancer who inherits the defective BRCA2 gene has only approximately 6% chance of eventually developing breast ...

How does early detection of breast cancer affect survival?

Early detection of breast cancer increases treatment options and often reduces the risk of dying from breast cancer.

What is the name of the cancer that occurs in the ducts of the breast?

Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma. Of the men who develop breast cancer, the vast majority of those cases are Infiltra ting Ductal Carcinoma (IDC), which means cells in or around the ducts begin to invade surrounding tissue.

Why do men have more cancer than women?

Men carry a higher mortality than women do, primarily because awareness among men is less and they are less likely to assume a lump is breast cancer, which can cause a delay in seeking treatment .

Is breast cancer a genetic predisposition?

Men with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer (carrying BRCA2 gene mutation) are also at higher risk of getting prostate cancer at a younger age than usually diagnosed, as well as being at higher risk for melanoma and pancreatic cancer.

Can a man have inflammatory breast cancer?

Very rarely, a man might be diagnosed with inflammatory breast cancer or Paget disease of the nipple, which is Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) contained within the nipple and usually areola.

What are the risk factors for male breast cancer?

Aging is the primary risk factor for breast cancer in men as well as in women, says medical oncologist Ayca Gucalp, who is leading the research efforts in male breast cancer at Memorial Sloan Kettering. However, men tend to develop the disease in their late 60s or 70s, which on average is five to ten years later than women.

How is male breast cancer diagnosed?

Breast cancer in men tends to be diagnosed at a more-advanced stage than it is in women, because many men discount symptoms for a long time, Dr. Gucalp says. “Even after men recognize a lump and go to see a doctor, it may take longer for tests to be run because of a lack of awareness in the medical community,” she notes.

What else do we know about how breast cancer differs in men and women on a molecular level?

Twenty percent of female breast cancers have an increased number of copies of HER2, and HER2-positive status indicates that patients are likely to respond to one of several drugs that target the HER2 protein.

What research is being conducted on male breast cancer?

MSK is one of the leading centers in a new international effort to study male breast cancer. The first part of this project was focused on retrospective analyses of past patients in order to learn more about the biology of their disease.

What is the test for breast cancer?

The tests used for breast cancer diagnosis are the same in men and women: a mammogram with or without an ultrasound, followed by a biopsy, in which a small sample of the tumor is removed. “The biopsy is important to confirm a diagnosis of breast cancer and to assess the tumor’s receptor status,” Dr. Gucalp says.

How many men are given tamoxifen for breast cancer?

But Dr. Gucalp says that although more than 90% of male breast cancers are estrogen receptor–positive, studies have found that only about 77% of men are given tamoxifen, a drug that’s used to target the estrogen receptor.

What causes hormone levels to be altered?

These altered hormone levels may be the result of chromosomal disorders such as Klinefelter syndrome; certain conditions that affect the testicles; liver dysfunction; or medications that affect the balance of hormones, including some drugs used to treat prostate cancer.

what is male breast cancer
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