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why is osteosarcoma more common in males

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Is osteosarcoma more common in males or females?

It happens slightly more often in males than in females. Osteosarcoma most commonly happens in the long bones around the knee. Other sites for osteosarcoma include the upper leg, or thighbone, the lower leg, upper arm bone, or any bone in the body, including those in the pelvis, shoulder, and skull.

What is osteosarcoma and what causes it?

What is osteosarcoma? Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer in children and teens. This cancer arises most often in the wide ends of long bones, such as the femur and tibia in the upper and lower leg, and the humerus in the upper arm.

How does the risk of osteosarcoma change with age?

The risk goes down in middle age, but rises again in older adults (usually over the age of 60). Osteosarcoma in older adults is often linked to another cause, such as a long-standing bone disease (see below). Children with osteosarcoma are usually tall for their age. This also suggests that osteosarcoma may be related to rapid bone growth.

What are The racial predilections of osteosarcoma?

Females tend to develop it slightly earlier, possibly because they tend to have their growth spurts earlier. In the United States, osteosarcoma is slightly more common in African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos than in whites.

What causes osteosarcoma?

The exact cause of osteosarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be due to DNA mutations inside bone cells —either inherited or acquired after birth.

What is osteosarcoma in children?

What is osteosarcoma? Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that usually develops in the osteoblast cells that form bone . It happens most often in children, adolescents, and young adults. Approximately 800 new cases of osteosarcoma are reported each year in the U.S.

How is osteosarcoma treated?

Specific treatment for osteosarcoma will be determined by your healthcare provider based on: Surgery (for example, biopsy, resections, bone/skin grafts, limb salvage procedures, reconstructions, or amputation) Many patients, particularly those with higher-grade tumors, will receive a combination of treatments.

What are the risk factors for osteosarcoma?

Suggested risk factors for osteosarcoma include the following: Teenage growth spurts. Being tall for a specific age. Previous treatment with radiation for another cancer, especially at a young age or with high doses of radiation. Presence of certain benign (noncancerous) bone diseases. Presence of certain rare, inherited disorders, ...

What is a rare family predisposition to multiple types of cancers?

Presence of certain benign (noncancerous) bone diseases. Presence of certain rare, inherited disorders, such as the following: Li-Fraumeni syndrome. A rare family predisposition to multiple types of cancers (such as soft tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, brain tumors, osteosarcoma, and others) caused by a mutation in a gene—the p53 tumor-suppressor ...

What is Rothmund Thompson syndrome?

Rothmund-Thompson syndrome. A rare inherited syndrome that includes skeletal problems, rashes, short stature, and an increased risk of developing osteosarcoma. It is caused by an abnormality in the REQL4 gene. Hereditary retinoblastoma. A cancer of the eye that usually happens in children younger than 4 years old.

Where does osteosarcoma occur?

Osteosarcoma most commonly happens in the long bones around the knee. Other sites for osteosarcoma include the upper leg, or thighbone, the lower leg, upper arm bone, or any bone in the body, including those in the pelvis, shoulder, and skull. Osteosarcoma may grow into nearby tissues, such as tendons or muscles.

What age is osteosarcoma most common?

The risk of osteosarcoma is highest for those between the ages of 10 and 30, especially during the teenage growth spurt. This suggests there may be a link between rapid bone growth and risk of tumor formation. The risk goes down in middle age, but rises again in older adults (usually over the age of 60). Osteosarcoma in older adults is often linked to another cause, such as a long-standing bone disease (see below).

Why do females develop osteosarcoma earlier?

Osteosarcoma is more common in males than in females. Females tend to develop it slightly earlier, possibly because they tend to have their growth spurts earlier .

What are the risk factors for osteosarcoma?

Osteosarcoma Risk Factors. A risk factor is anything that increases your chances of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Lifestyle-related risk factors such as body weight, physical activity, diet, and tobacco use play a major role in many adult cancers. But these factors usually take many years ...

When does osteosarcoma go down?

The risk goes down in middle age, but rises again in older adults (usually over the age of 60). Osteosarcoma in older adults is often linked to another cause, such as a long-standing bone disease (see below).

What is the American Cancer Society?

At the American Cancer Society, we’re on a mission to free the world from cancer. Until we do, we’ll be funding and conducting research, sharing expert information, supporting patients, and spreading the word about prevention. All so you can live longer — and better.

What is the cause of Li-Fraumeni syndrome?

This syndrome is usually caused by a mutation of the TP53 gene.

What is it called when a bone is too fibrous?

Fibrous dysplasia: This is an uncommon condition in which cells in a certain part of a bone make too much fibrous (scar-like) tissue, which replaces the normal bone in the area. In some people this happens in only one bone, while in others it affects more than one.

What is the name of the cancer that starts in the bones?

Osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma) is a type of cancer that starts in your bones. In the beginning, the cancer cells appear to be regular bone cells. Then, they create tumors, and those tumors create immature, irregular, diseased bone. It is most often seen in teenagers, with the average age of diagnosis of osteosarcoma being 15.

What is the most common cancer in teenagers?

Osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma is the most common type of cancer that begins in you or your teenager’s bones, usually in the arms or legs. Limited movement, bone pain, a lump and an unexplained broken bone are the most common symptoms. Many treatments are available. If the osteosarcoma doesn’t spread to other parts of the body, ...

How do you know if you have osteosarcoma?

The most common symptoms of osteosarcoma include: Bone pain or tenderness. A mass or lump (tumor) that is warm and might be felt through your skin. Swelling and redness at the site of your tumor. Increased pain with lifting (if it affects your arm). Limping (if it affects your leg).

What is the difference between high grade and low grade osteosarcoma?

Osteosarcoma tumors can be categorized as low-grade, intermediate-grade, or high-grade. Low-grade means that your cancer will grow slowly and remain where it began (localized), while high-grade indicates that it will spread quickly and metastasize.

What is the average age for osteosarcoma?

It is most often seen in teenagers, with the average age of diagnosis of osteosarcoma being 15. A “ sarcoma ” is a type of cancer that develops in connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, or muscle. “Osteo” refers to bones. Osteosarcoma most often affects long bones, such as those in the arms and legs.

How old is the average person diagnosed with osteosarcoma?

Osteosarcoma most often affects pre-teens and teens; the average age at diagnosis is 15. More than 75% of the cases are people less than 25 years old. This may be related to the “growth spurt” most teens experience at that age. Osteosarcoma can also occur in children and young adults.

Why do boys get osteosarcoma?

You’re at a higher risk of osteosarcoma if you: Have gone through radiation treatment. Took alkylating agents, which are anticancer drugs.

How is osteosarcoma treated?

Treatment usually involves chemotherapy, surgery and, sometimes, radiation therapy . Doctors select treatment options based on where the osteosarcoma starts, the size of the cancer, the type and grade of the osteosarcoma , and whether the cancer has spread beyond the bone. Treatment innovations for osteosarcoma have greatly improved ...

What to do if your child has osteosarcoma?

Make an appointment with your child's doctor if your child has any persistent signs and symptoms that worry you. Osteosarcoma symptoms are similar to many more-common conditions, such as sports injuries, so your doctor may investigate those causes first. There is a problem with information submitted for this request.

Where does osteosarcoma start?

Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that begins in the cells that form bones. Osteosarcoma is most often found in the long bones — more often the legs, but sometimes the arms — but it can start in any bone. In very rare instances, it occurs in soft tissue outside the bone. Osteosarcoma tends to occur in teenagers and young adults, ...

What is the purpose of DNA in a cell?

A cell's DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The changes tell the cell to start making new bone when it isn't needed. The result is a mass (tumor) of poorly formed bone cells that can invade and destroy healthy body tissue. Cells can break away and spread (metastasize) throughout the body.

Can osteosarcoma be controlled with chemotherapy?

The aggressive chemotherapy needed to control osteosarcoma can cause substantial side effects, both in the short and long term. Your health care team can help you manage the side effects that happen during treatment and provide you with a list of side effects to watch for in the years after treatment.

Can osteosarcoma spread to other bones?

Osteosarcoma can spread from where it started to other areas, making treatment and recovery more difficult. Osteosarcoma that spreads most often spreads to the lungs and to other bones. Adapting to limb amputation. Surgery that removes the tumor and spares the limb is used whenever possible.

Can you use an artificial limb to remove cancer?

Surgery that removes the tumor and spares the limb is used whenever possible. But sometimes it's necessary to remove part of the affected limb in order to remove all of the cancer. Learning to use an artificial limb (prosthesis) will take time, practice and patience. Experts can help you adapt.

Why choose St. Jude for your child’s osteosarcoma treatment?

St. Jude is the only National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center devoted solely to children.

How long does it take for osteosarcoma to show up?

Symptoms of osteosarcoma may appear weeks to months before the diagnosis is made. A diagnosis may not be made right away because the symptoms are common to other health problems.

What is osteosarcoma in children?

What is osteosarcoma? Osteosarcoma is a type of cancer of the bones: Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer in children and teens. This cancer arises most often in the wide ends of long bones, such as the femur and tibia in the upper and lower leg, and the humerus in the upper arm. It can also occur in flat bones ...

What are the factors that contribute to osteosarcoma?

Genetics can play a role in whether a person develops osteosarcoma. About 3 to 4% of children with osteosarcoma carry mutations (changes) in certain genes. Some related factors include the following: An eye cancer called retinoblastoma. A history of multiple cancers.

What kind of doctors do pediatrics have?

Your child will have access to a closely knit team of pediatric oncologists (cancer doctors), surgeons, radiation treatment specialists, rehabilitation specialists and pediatric nurses who work together for the best outcomes.

How does chemo help cancer?

Chemo uses powerful medicines to kill cancer cells or stop them from growing and dividing to make more cancer cells. Most chemo is injected into the bloodstream, so that it can travel throughout the body.

Why do you have to remove cancer?

The entire cancer must be removed to prevent it from returning. A small amount of normal tissue around the tumor is also removed to ensure no cancer is left behind. Before the 1970s, surgery to amputate the affected limb was the only treatment available.

How long does osteosarcoma last?

Death rates for osteosarcoma have steadily declined by approximately 1.3% per year. The 5-year overall survival rate is about 68%, regardless of sex.

How is osteosarcoma divided?

Osteosarcoma is grossly divided into various subtypes based on its location within the bone then further subdivided by grade.

What is the most common bone malignancy in children?

With the ceaseless work of numerous medical, surgical, and scientific professionals, treatment options and survivability have vastly improved in recent years.[1] Osteosarcoma is the most common primary pediatric bone malignancy, derived from primitive bone-forming (osteoid producing) mesenchymal cells. It occurs in primary (no underlying bone ...

What is the most common cancer in children?

Osteosarcoma accounts for approximately 2.4% of pediatric cancers, making it the eighth most common childhood malignancy. Leukemia is the most common (30%), followed by malignancies of the central nervous system (22.3%), neuroblastoma (7.3%), Wilms tumor (5.6%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.5%), rhabdomyosarcoma (3.1%), and retinoblastoma (2.8%). [5]

What is the age of retinoblastoma?

Hereditary Retinoblastoma: An autosomal dominant condition caused by germline mutations in the RB1 gene, causes bilateral retinoblastoma at an average presenting age of one year. Retinoblastoma characteristically presents as an absence of the "red reflex" in the eye or eyes of the affected child. This disorder imparts an increased risk of osteosarcoma later in life. [2]

How to do a core needle biopsy?

Core needle biopsy is achieved via a single deep stab with a needle through a trocar, which traverses a single tissue plane in a location that will be included in the final resection. Multiple cores are necessary from the representative region of the mass - the soft tissue portion in the periphery of the lesion.

Where does osteosarcoma occur?

Osteosarcoma frequently occurs near the metaphysis of the long bones of the appendicular skeleton. The most common locations include the femur (42%, with 75% of tumors in the distal portion of the bone), the tibia (19%, with 80% of tumors in the proximal portion of the bone), and the humerus (10%, with 90% of tumors in the proximal portion of the bone). Other potential sites include the skull or jaw (8%) and the pelvis (8%). [5] As mentioned previously, osteosarcoma can subdivide into primary and secondary forms:

What is the fastest growing form of osteosarcoma?

This refers to how the cancer looks like under a microscope and determines how likely an osteosarcoma is to grow and spread. High-grade osteosarcomas are the most common form in children and adolescents and are the fastest growing form. They also have the greatest tendency to spread (metastasize).

Why do osteosarcomas occur?

Sporadic occurrence of cancer is thought to occur because of multiple factors acting together. This can include genetic and environmental factors. The cancerous cells in osteosarcomas are usually mesenchymal stem cells or osteoblasts. Mesenchymal stem cells are “adult” stem cells that can grow and change (differentiate) into different types of cells including bone, cartilage, muscle, fat, or connective tissue. Osteoblasts are cells that work to develop new bone. When they become cancerous they may produce an immature form of bone called an osteoid, which is how the pathologist makes the diagnosis.

Why do osteosarcomas affect teens?

Because osteosarcomas tend to affect adolescents in their teen years and disproportionately affects the growing portions (growth plates), many researchers believe that there may be problems with bone growth contributing to the development of this form of bone cancer.

How many people get osteosarcoma each year?

There are estimated to be about 750-1,000 new individuals diagnosed with osteosarcoma each year in the United States. About 450 of those are children or adolescents under the age of 20. Osteosarcoma is a rare disorder, but it is the most common cause of bone cancer in children and adolescents.

How do you know if you have osteosarcoma?

Symptoms will vary depending upon the exact location and extent of disease. Pain is the most common symptom of osteosarcoma and there is often a mass or bump that can be felt (palpable). Eighty percent of individuals present with localized disease, which means the cancer remains in the area it first developed.

What is the most common bone cancer?

Osteosarcoma is a form of cancer. It is a type of tumor that affects the bones. Osteosarcoma can affect people at any age, but is most common during the teen-aged years, and is the most common bone cancer affecting children and adolescents under the age of 20. The long bones of the legs, usually near where they connect to the knees, and the upper long bone of the arms, near where this bone meets the shoulders are the most common sites for osteosarcoma formation. Symptoms will vary depending upon the exact location and extent of disease. Pain is the most common symptom of osteosarcoma and there is often a mass or bump that can be felt (palpable). Eighty percent of individuals present with localized disease, which means the cancer remains in the area it first developed. Osteosarcoma can spread (metastasize) to other areas of the body, most likely the lungs. The exact cause is unknown in most individuals, but osteosarcoma can be induced by radiation. Most individuals are treated with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Sometimes, radiation therapy may be used.

Where is osteosarcoma in the leg?

About 50% of individuals develop an osteosarcoma around the knee. For the legs this is near the knees and includes the bottom of the femur and the tops of the tibia. Osteosarcomas can also affect the upper part of the long bone of the arms called the humerus. The humerus runs from the elbow to the shoulder.

What is the most common bone malignancy?

Osteosarcoma derives from primitive bone-forming mesenchymal cells and is the most common primary bone malignancy. The incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals of osteosarcoma for all races and both sexes are 4.0 (3.5-4.6) for the range 0-14 years and 5.0 (4.6-5.6) for the range 0-19 years per year per million persons.

How long does osteosarcoma last?

Death rates for osteosarcoma have been declining by about 1.3% per year. The overall 5-year survival rate for osteosarcoma is 68%, without significant gender difference. The age of the patient is correlated with the survival, with the poorest survival among older patients.

Where does osteosarcoma occur?

Osteosarcoma commonly occurs in the long bones of the extremities near the metaphyseal growth plates. The most common sites are the femur (42%, with 75% of tumors in the distal femur), the tibia (19%, with 80% of tumors in the proximal tibia), and the humerus (10%, with 90% of tumors in the proximal humerus).

why is osteosarcoma more common in males
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